The Middle Ages was a time period between the 5th and 15th centuries. It started at the collapse of the Roman Empire.
Now, we can split the Middle Ages into three main sections: the early Middle Ages, the high Middle Ages, and the late Middle Ages, and each section has its own particular characteristics.
The transcript is for your convenience
The early Middle Ages were characterized by social and political changes. Remember, the Roman Empire had just collapsed, so there was kind of a lot of land up for grabs at that point for countries to take that the Roman Empire used to hold. So, a lot of conflict at that time as countries tried to gain and acquire that land for themselves.
During the high Middle Ages, lots of population growth in Europe, lots of technological advances also in Europe. The Crusades took place at this point as Western Christians tried to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims. Also, feudalism was very common at this time, which is where a peasant would live on a piece of land owned by a noble in exchange for working for that noble.
The late Middle Ages were a very depressing point of the Middle Ages. The Black Death occurred at that point, which was a disease that killed millions and millions of Europeans. There was also controversy in the Church and some cases of heresy.
Now, just like the Middle Ages came after the Roman Empire, the Renaissance came after the Middle Ages. So, the Middle Ages in some way set the stage for the Renaissance.