The functions of plant and animal cells vary greatly and the function of different cells in a single organism can also be vastly different. We’re going to take a look at plant and animal cells and the similarities and differences between them.
First, let’s take a look at the similarities. Plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic. They’re both eukaryotic as opposed to being prokaryotic and since they’re eukaryotic, they both have a nucleus. Then a third important similarity is their reproduction process.
Next Lesson: Proteins
The transcript is for your convenience.
Both plant and animal cells reproduce by duplicating genetic material, separating it and then dividing it in half. There are also similarities related to parts of cells. They both have cell membranes, cytoplasm, microtubules as part of their cytoskeleton, vacuoles and then many other structures are the same.
They both have differences with each other and so we have plant cells and animal cells and so one huge difference is that plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells have no cell wall. Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose that can kindle high levels of pressure within the cell, which can occur when liquid enters a plant cell.
Now plant cells have chloroplast and these chloroplasts come in handy in a process known as photosynthesis. Plant cells have chloroplasts that are used during the process of photosynthesis, which is the conversion of some light in the food. Chloroplasts in plants that perform photosynthesis, absorbs sunlight and then convert that into energy. Now animal cells use something known as mitochondria and so the mitochondria produce energy from food in animal cells.
Another difference is that plant cells have a regular shape, in other words, they pretty much always have the same shape, while animal cells have many shapes. There are many possible shapes that an animal cell could have. There is also a difference in size. Plant cells are larger than animal cells generally.
Then finally plant cells have cell plates and so two cells are separated by cell plates, while animal cells pinch in half. What that means is, is that plant cells build a cell plate between two new cells, while animal cells make a cleavage through and pinch in half. That’s not all the differences between these two types of cells, but these are many of the main differences and these are many of the main similarities.