Commas have many different functions, but their three primary functions are to separate clauses, join independent clauses, and they’re used to avoid confusion.
So, since we talked about separating and joining clauses, let’s first talk about what a clause is. A clause is a piece of a sentence. If you have a dependent clause, it is dependent on the rest of the sentence. It cannot stand alone as a complete sentence, it would be a fragment.
If you have an independent clause, it would be able to stand alone as a sentence. It would be independently a sentence on its own.
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